Ingredients and Manufacturing Process for Fish Feed Formulation

Composition of fish feeds

Fish feeds, like other animal feeds, can be divided into six main compounds :(1) water, (2) protein, (3) fat, (4) ash, (5) crude fiber, and (6) nitrogen-free extract. The main features of fish feed are protein and fat content. The protein in the diet is mainly used for the accumulation of tissues, fat is the main source of energy and the increase of adipose tissue. The amount of carbohydrates in fish feed is usually low because fish, especially carnivorous fish, are less able to digest carbohydrates. Therefore, the energy in the diet must come from fats and fats have higher energy density than carbohydrates. As a result, fish feed is more concentrated than that of farm animals on land, so protein levels (up to about 40-45%) and energy density are higher. The digestible protein/digestible energy ratio is an important feature of a fish feed and, as a rule of thumb, should more or less resemble the protein/energy ratio of the growing fish itself. In this way, maximum retention of dietary protein (an expensive component of fish feed) is achieved.

Fish Feed Extruder Machine

Fish feed extruder is a necessary equipment for small and medium-sized fish farms and fish feed processing plants.

Basic Ingredients For Fish Feed Formulation

  • Fish meal
  • Fish oil
  • Rice bran
  • Shrimp bran
  • Wheat bran
  • Soybeans cake
  • Cotton seed cake
  • Dried potatoes etc.

The Essential Nutrients Required For Fish Feed Formulation

Protein is a very essential nutrient for fish feed formulation. This is because protein is the main source of energy for fish. Fish need two or three times as much protein as other animals for energy.

Minerals are another essential nutrient in fish feed formulations. This is a necessary condition for the development of fish bones. Therefore, the production of fish feed must include minerals such as zinc, copper, iodine, iron, manganese and calcium.

Fish are very susceptible to bacteria. So fish need vitamins to build a strong immune system. It should be noted that the amount of vitamins contained in the fish feed formula should be minimal.

Other nutrients required for fish feed formulation include water, fat and carbohydrates.

Fish Feed Formulation Manufacturing Process

Grinding of Ingredients
In a fish feed formulation, the first thing you do is measure all the necessary ingredients in specified proportions and grind them one by one.

Mixing of Ingredients
The next step is to mix all the dry ingredients that are already grounded. You need a fish feed mixer to make it. After mixing the dry ingredients, you should mix the vitamins and minerals together.

Add Water and Oil to the Mixture
Warm the oil, add it to the mixture and mix everything together for at least five minutes. Then add a little water at a time. Mix it with the mixture until it forms a mash.

Process the Feed Mash in a Pellet Machine
The fish feed mixture is put into the fish feed extruder so that it can be processed into pellets. The size of the pellets will depend on the size of the fish that wants to be feed.

Fish Feed Extruder

Dry the Fish Feed Pellets
After granulated mash is formed, it is then dried in a fish feed dryer to reduce the moisture content. Pellets should be dried at a lower temperature than 60 degrees. This is because high temperatures can destroy micronutrients found in the feed.

Cooling technology
The pellets are usually cooled in Counter-flow type feed cooler, where cool air takes away some heat and water. The pellets can be packaged at room temperature. If the pellets are cooled without drying, a large number of small cracks will appear on the surface and extend deep due to rapid cooling and dehydration inside the pellet. Even fine gelatinized powders may produce this phenomenon.

Classifying Screener
After pelleting, drying and cooling, unfinished products should be screened by screening. Powder and debris leach from the bottom of the machine. Sieve out large particles and residues from the top of the machine. Finished materials are packed from the interlayer in the feed column.

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